The 1988 Nobel Prize winner establishes the subject's mathematical background, reviews the principles of electrostatics, then introduces Einstein's special theory of relativity and applies it to topics throughout the book.

## Principles of Electrodynamics and Relativity / Prinzipien der Elektrodynamik und Relativitätstheorie

will be "asymptotically integrable", that is to say, if we displace a vector parallel to itself along a closed curve whose total length is proportional to r, then, as we remove the curve to infinity, the change of the vector that results from the circuit about the curve will tend to zero. In the presence of gravitational radiation the total energy will not be con served, because the waves carry some energy with them; analogous statements apply to the linear momentum, etc. But that is not all; if there is no coordinate 2 system in which the field strengths drop off as 1/r , then there is no possibility to generate out of one vector" at infinity" a whole field of parallel vectors" at infinity". Thus we are unable in the presence of radiation to define, even at infinity, a "rigid displacement", the type of coordinate transformation that is presumably generated by the energy integral. Under these circumstances it is very difficult to see how one can define the "free vector" energy -linear momen tum in a convincing manner. These ambiguities of course do not imply that general relativity lacks quan tities that obey equations of continuity; rather, general relativity suffers in this respect from an embarras de richesse. There is an infinity of such quantities, and our difficulty is to single out a subset and to present these as the "natural" l expressions for energy, linear momentum, etc.

## Principles of Quantum Electrodynamics

Principles of Quantum Electrodynamics concentrates on one of the best understood parts of quantum field theory, quantum electrodynamics. It emphasizes the physical basis of the theory and avoids purely mathematical details. For this reason, the book should not be taken as a handbook of field theory, but rather as a compendium of the most characteristic and interesting results which have been obtained up to now. The book is organized into four parts. Part I develops the general mathematical framework, covering units and orders of magnitude, classical electrodynamics, and the general formalism of the quantum theory of fields. Part II deals with free fields. It examines some problems concerning the physical interpretation of the theory and asks whether the quantization procedure adopted actually introduces quantum characteristics and, if so, how these are expressed by the formalism. It also investigates the expectation values of more complicated expressions. Part III examines the effects of a mechanism which produces the particles under consideration; i.e., an external source of the fields. Part IV deals with quantum fields in interaction. The focus is on the case of a quantized electromagnetic field, the source of which is a quantized Dirac field.

## Foundations of Classical Electrodynamics

*Charge, Flux, and Metric*

## The Creation of Scientific Effects

*Heinrich Hertz and Electric Waves*

## Principles of Plasma Electrodynamics

The manuscript tackles one of the most interesting branches of plasma phys ics, the electrodynamics of the plasma. 99% of matter in the universe occur in the plasma state, - e. g. , stars, gaseous nebulae, interstellar gas. The plasma also widely occurs on earth. Thus, the ionosphere protects human beings from the destroying effects of the solar radiation and provides the long distance radio communication. Plasmas also show up in metals and semicon ductors, and it is difficult to overestimate their importance in our everyday life. But even more important is that the power engineering of the future is connected with plasmas since the plasma is the fuel for thermonuclear reca tions and a practically unlimited source of energy harmless to the environ ment. For the description of a hot plasma a unique logically complete and consistent theoretical model has been developed on the basis of the Maxwell Vlasov equations. We tried to carry this idea through the entire text, which aims to present an orderly exposition of electromagnetic properties of the plasma within the Maxwell-Vlasov model. Both linear and nonlinear elec trodynamics of the plasma are presented. The first part (Chap. 1-5) deals with the linear electromagnetic properties of the plasma in thermodynamic equilibrium. The basic equations of the Maxwell-Vlasov model are introduced and the properties of the plasma in equilibrium are studied in the linear approximation of the electromagnetic field. The second part (Chaps.

## The Genesis of Feynman Diagrams

In a detailed reconstruction of the genesis of Feynman diagrams the author reveals that their development was constantly driven by the attempt to resolve fundamental problems concerning the uninterpretable infinities that arose in quantum as well as classical theories of electrodynamic phenomena. Accordingly, as a comparison with the graphical representations that were in use before Feynman diagrams shows, the resulting theory of quantum electrodynamics, featuring Feynman diagrams, differed significantly from earlier versions of the theory in the way in which the relevant phenomena were conceptualized and modelled. The author traces the development of Feynman diagrams from Feynman's "struggle with the Dirac equation" in unpublished manuscripts to the two of Freeman Dyson's publications which put Feynman diagrams into a field theoretic context. The author brings to the fore that Feynman and Dyson not only created a powerful computational device but, above all, a new conceptual framework in which the uninterpretable infinities that had arisen in the old form of the theory could be precisely identified and subsequently removed in a justifiable manner.

## Reductionism and Systems Theory in the Life Sciences

*Some Problems and Perspectives*