The 1988 Nobel Prize winner establishes the subject's mathematical background, reviews the principles of electrostatics, then introduces Einstein's special theory of relativity and applies it to topics throughout the book.
will be "asymptotically integrable", that is to say, if we displace a vector parallel to itself along a closed curve whose total length is proportional to r, then, as we remove the curve to infinity, the change of the vector that results from the circuit about the curve will tend to zero. In the presence of gravitational radiation the total energy will not be con served, because the waves carry some energy with them; analogous statements apply to the linear momentum, etc. But that is not all; if there is no coordinate 2 system in which the field strengths drop off as 1/r , then there is no possibility to generate out of one vector" at infinity" a whole field of parallel vectors" at infinity". Thus we are unable in the presence of radiation to define, even at infinity, a "rigid displacement", the type of coordinate transformation that is presumably generated by the energy integral. Under these circumstances it is very difficult to see how one can define the "free vector" energy -linear momen tum in a convincing manner. These ambiguities of course do not imply that general relativity lacks quan tities that obey equations of continuity; rather, general relativity suffers in this respect from an embarras de richesse. There is an infinity of such quantities, and our difficulty is to single out a subset and to present these as the "natural" l expressions for energy, linear momentum, etc.
Principles of Quantum Electrodynamics concentrates on one of the best understood parts of quantum field theory, quantum electrodynamics. It emphasizes the physical basis of the theory and avoids purely mathematical details. For this reason, the book should not be taken as a handbook of field theory, but rather as a compendium of the most characteristic and interesting results which have been obtained up to now. The book is organized into four parts. Part I develops the general mathematical framework, covering units and orders of magnitude, classical electrodynamics, and the general formalism of the quantum theory of fields. Part II deals with free fields. It examines some problems concerning the physical interpretation of the theory and asks whether the quantization procedure adopted actually introduces quantum characteristics and, if so, how these are expressed by the formalism. It also investigates the expectation values of more complicated expressions. Part III examines the effects of a mechanism which produces the particles under consideration; i.e., an external source of the fields. Part IV deals with quantum fields in interaction. The focus is on the case of a quantized electromagnetic field, the source of which is a quantized Dirac field.
Release on 2003-08-07 | by Friedrich W. Hehl,Yuri N. Obukhov
Charge, Flux, and Metric
Author: Friedrich W. Hehl,Yuri N. Obukhov
Pubpsher: Springer Science & Business Media
In this book we display the fundamental structure underlying classical electro dynamics, i. e. , the phenomenological theory of electric and magnetic effects. The book can be used as a textbook for an advanced course in theoretical electrodynamics for physics and mathematics students and, perhaps, for some highly motivated electrical engineering students. We expect from our readers that they know elementary electrodynamics in the conventional (1 + 3)-dimensional form including Maxwell's equations. More over, they should be familiar with linear algebra and elementary analysis, in cluding vector analysis. Some knowledge of differential geometry would help. Our approach rests on the metric-free integral formulation of the conservation laws of electrodynamics in the tradition of F. Kottler (1922), E. Cartan (1923), and D. van Dantzig (1934), and we stress, in particular, the axiomatic point of view. In this manner we are led to an understanding of why the Maxwell equa tions have their specific form. We hope that our book can be seen in the classical tradition of the book by E. J. Post (1962) on the Formal Structure of Electro magnetics and of the chapter "Charge and Magnetic Flux" of the encyclopedia article on classical field theories by C. Truesdell and R. A. Toupin (1960), in cluding R. A. Toupin's Bressanone lectures (1965); for the exact references see the end of the introduction on page 11. .
Release on 1994-09-15 | by Jed Z. Buchwald,Doris and Henry Dreyfuss Professor of History Jed Z Buchwald
Heinrich Hertz and Electric Waves
Author: Jed Z. Buchwald,Doris and Henry Dreyfuss Professor of History Jed Z Buchwald
Pubpsher: University of Chicago Press
This book is an attempt to reconstitute the tacit knowledge—the shared, unwritten assumptions, values, and understandings—that shapes the work of science. Jed Z. Buchwald uses as his focus the social and intellectual world of nineteenth-century German physics. Drawing on the lab notes, published papers, and unpublished manuscripts of Heinrich Hertz, Buchwald recreates Hertz's 1887 invention of a device that produced electromagnetic waves in wires. The invention itself was serendipitous and the device was quickly transformed, but Hertz's early experiments led to major innovations in electrodynamics. Buchwald explores the difficulty Hertz had in reconciling the theories of other physicists, including Hermann von Helmholtz and James Clerk Maxwell, and he considers the complex and often problematic connections between theory and experiment. In this first detailed scientific biography of Hertz and his scientific community, Buchwald demonstrates that tacit knowledge can be recovered so that we can begin to identify the unspoken rules that govern scientific practice.
Release on 2013-11-20 | by Andrej F. Alexandrov,L. S. Bogdankevich,A. A. Rukhadze
Author: Andrej F. Alexandrov,L. S. Bogdankevich,A. A. Rukhadze
The manuscript tackles one of the most interesting branches of plasma phys ics, the electrodynamics of the plasma. 99% of matter in the universe occur in the plasma state, - e. g. , stars, gaseous nebulae, interstellar gas. The plasma also widely occurs on earth. Thus, the ionosphere protects human beings from the destroying effects of the solar radiation and provides the long distance radio communication. Plasmas also show up in metals and semicon ductors, and it is difficult to overestimate their importance in our everyday life. But even more important is that the power engineering of the future is connected with plasmas since the plasma is the fuel for thermonuclear reca tions and a practically unlimited source of energy harmless to the environ ment. For the description of a hot plasma a unique logically complete and consistent theoretical model has been developed on the basis of the Maxwell Vlasov equations. We tried to carry this idea through the entire text, which aims to present an orderly exposition of electromagnetic properties of the plasma within the Maxwell-Vlasov model. Both linear and nonlinear elec trodynamics of the plasma are presented. The first part (Chap. 1-5) deals with the linear electromagnetic properties of the plasma in thermodynamic equilibrium. The basic equations of the Maxwell-Vlasov model are introduced and the properties of the plasma in equilibrium are studied in the linear approximation of the electromagnetic field. The second part (Chaps.
In a detailed reconstruction of the genesis of Feynman diagrams the author reveals that their development was constantly driven by the attempt to resolve fundamental problems concerning the uninterpretable infinities that arose in quantum as well as classical theories of electrodynamic phenomena. Accordingly, as a comparison with the graphical representations that were in use before Feynman diagrams shows, the resulting theory of quantum electrodynamics, featuring Feynman diagrams, differed significantly from earlier versions of the theory in the way in which the relevant phenomena were conceptualized and modelled. The author traces the development of Feynman diagrams from Feynman's "struggle with the Dirac equation" in unpublished manuscripts to the two of Freeman Dyson's publications which put Feynman diagrams into a field theoretic context. The author brings to the fore that Feynman and Dyson not only created a powerful computational device but, above all, a new conceptual framework in which the uninterpretable infinities that had arisen in the old form of the theory could be precisely identified and subsequently removed in a justifiable manner.
Release on 2012-12-06 | by Paul Hoyningen-Huene,Franz M. Wuketits
Some Problems and Perspectives
Author: Paul Hoyningen-Huene,Franz M. Wuketits
Pubpsher: Springer Science & Business Media
The present volume aims at giving a discussion ot the problems ot reductionism in contemporary life sciences. It contains six papers which deals with reduction/reductionism in different fields ot biological research. Also, the holistic perspective, 1. e. the systems view, is discussed in some ot the papers. The message ot this discussion Is that - whereas reductionism is indeed an important strategy - the systems approach is needed. It is argued by some ot the authors that organisms are complex systems and not just heaps of molecules, 50 that the analytical method does not suffice. Recent developments in systems theory offer the possibility to install a more comprehensive view ot living systems what can be seen particularly in the field ot evolutionary biology. It is true that any organismic activity is molecular, this is to say that it is based on molecular mechanisms. But it is also true that the whole organism displays certain patterns ot behavior which are not just molecular. Any organism can be described as a system ot different levels ot organization different levels ot order and complexity - and it is important, theretore, to study all ot the organizational levels and to see their peculiarities. It should be obvious, however, that there is not one problem ot reduction/reductionism, but that there are many problems linked together and that these problems appear at different levels ot biological research and bio philosophical reflections.