This book is for geoscience students taking introductory or intermediate-level courses in igneous petrology, to help develop key skills (and confidence) in identifying igneous minerals, interpreting and allocating appropriate names to unknown rocks presented to them. The book thus serves, uniquely, both as a conventional course text and as a practical laboratory manual. Following an introduction reviewing igneous nomenclature, each chapter addresses a specific compositional category of magmatic rocks, covering definition, mineralogy, eruption/ emplacement processes, textures and crystallization processes, geotectonic distribution, geochemistry, and aspects of magma genesis. One chapter is devoted to phase equilibrium experiments and magma evolution; another introduces pyroclastic volcanology. Each chapter concludes with exercises, with the answers being provided at the end of the book. Appendices provide a summary of techniques and optical data for microscope mineral identification, an introduction to petrographic calculations, a glossary of petrological terms, and a list of symbols and units. The book is richly illustrated with line drawings, monochrome pictures and colour plates. Additional resources for this book can be found at: http://www.wiley.com/go/gill/igneous.
This rigorous and up-to-date synthesis of current research and thought in igneous petrology explores the complex process of the generation and cooling of igneous rocks--those formed by solidification from a molten state, either intrusively, below the earth's crust, or extrusively as lava. Through the study of the mineral associations, compositions, and textures achieved in the formation of these rocks, Paul Hess traces the evolution of igneous rocks from site of origin to place of residency. He probes the clues that the distribution of igneous rocks provides for understanding plate tectonic processes. And he focuses on a number of unresolved problems critical to igneous petrology: the ultimate source rock of a magma; the location and process of melting; the collection of magma into large movable masses; the extraction of magma from its source and its emplacement onto the earth's crust; and the conditions of the crystallization and cooling of magma in its ultimate transformation into igneous rock. This comprehensive work, which integrates geochemistry, tectonophysics, and planetary geology with classical igneous petrology, provides a solid introduction to physical processes and isotopic principles and applies these processes and principles consistently in the discussion of petrogenetic models for all the major types of igneous rocks. It is a stimulating resource for students and researchers in igneous petrology as well as for geologists in allied fields (geophysics, geochemistry, cosomochemistry, and metamorphic petrology).
The variety of volcanic activity in the Solar System is widely recognised, yet the majestic sequences of magmatic processes that operate within an active planet are much less well known. Providing an exposition of igneous rocks, magmas and volcanic erupsions, this book brings together magnetic and volcanic data from different tectonic settings, and planets, with explanations of how they fit together. It systematically examines composition, origin and evolution of common igneous rocks, yet also examines a variety of rare magnetic rocks that play a crucial role in the global magma/igneous rock system.
Release on 2011-06-24 | by Anthony Dosseto,Simon P. Turner,James A. Van-Orman
From Core to Atmosphere
Author: Anthony Dosseto,Simon P. Turner,James A. Van-Orman
Pubpsher: John Wiley & Sons
Quantifying the timescales of current geological processes is critical for constraining the physical mechanisms operating on the Earth today. Since the Earth’s origin 4.55 billion years ago magmatic processes have continued to shape the Earth, producing the major reservoirs that exist today (core, mantle, crust, oceans and atmosphere) and promoting their continued evolution. But key questions remain. When did the core form and how quickly? How are magmas produced in the mantle, and how rapidly do they travel towards the surface? How long do magmas reside in the crust, differentiating and interacting with the host rocks to yield the diverse set of igneous rocks we see today? How fast are volcanic gases such as carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere? This book addresses these and other questions by reviewing the latest advances in a wide range of Earth Science disciplines: from the measurement of short-lived radionuclides to the study of element diffusion in crystals and numerical modelling of magma behaviour. It will be invaluable reading for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as igneous petrologists, mineralogists and geochemists involved in the study of igneous rocks and processes.
Release on 2008-02-14 | by James Monroe,Reed Wicander
Author: James Monroe,Reed Wicander
Pubpsher: Cengage Learning
THE CHANGING EARTH: EXPLORING GEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION is a leader in the Introductory Geology course. The fifth edition’s content is based on the best-selling texts PHYSICAL GEOLOGY: EXPLORING THE EARTH and HISTORICAL GEOLOGY: EVOLUTION OF EARTH AND LIFE THROUGH TIME, both written by James S. Monroe and Reed Wicander. Briefer than the previous edition and maintaining a consistent and clear writing style throughout, the text provides balanced coverage of physical and historical geology with engaging, real-life examples that draw you into the material. The fifth edition includes excellent illustrations, photographs, and maps that aid your understanding of this especially visual science. The book design presents the material in easily digestible chapters, with clear delineations between sections and well-placed artwork. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Release on 2009-01-29 | by Anthony Philpotts,Jay Ague
Author: Anthony Philpotts,Jay Ague
Pubpsher: Cambridge University Press
This textbook provides a basic understanding of the formative processes of igneous and metamorphic rock through quantitative applications of simple physical and chemical principles. The book encourages a deeper comprehension of the subject by explaining the petrologic principles rather than simply presenting the student with petrologic facts and terminology. Assuming knowledge of only introductory college-level courses in physics, chemistry, and calculus, it lucidly outlines mathematical derivations fully and at an elementary level, and is ideal for intermediate and advanced courses in igneous and metamorphic petrology. The end-of-chapter quantitative problem sets facilitate student learning by working through simple applications. They also introduce several widely-used thermodynamic software programs for calculating igneous and metamorphic phase equilibria and image analysis software. With over 350 illustrations, this revised edition contains valuable new material on the structure of the Earth's mantle and core, the properties and behaviour of magmas, recent results from satellite imaging, and more.
his book is intended for graduate students of the Earth Sciences who require a T comprehensive examination of the origins of igneous rocks as recorded by the isotope compositions of the strontium, neodymium, lead, and oxygen they contain. Students who have not had a formal course in the systematics of radiogenic isotopes can acquire a basic understanding of this subject by a careful study of Chap. 1. Addi tional information is readily available in a textbook by Faure (1986). The primary purpose of this book is to demonstrate how the isotope composition of Sr, Nd, Pb, and 0 in igneous rocks has been used to shed light on the origin of igneous rocks and hence on the activity of the mantle and on its interactions with the continental and oceanic crust. The presentations are based on the premise that igneous and metamorphic rocks form as a direct consequence of the dynamic processes of the mantle and of the re sulting interactions between the mantle and the crust. Accordingly, Chap. 2 to 6 ex amine specific types of igneous rocks that form in particular tectonic settings. Each of these chapters starts with questions about the properties of the mantle and crust, and about the relation between the tectonic setting and the rock-forming processes that take place in that setting.
Our aim in writing this book is to try to show how igneous rocks can be persuaded to reveal some ofthe secrets of their origins. The data of igneous rocks consist of field relations, texture, mineralogy, and geochemistry. Additionally, experimental petrology tells us how igneous systems might be expected to behave. Working on this material we attempt to show how hypotheses concerning the origins and evolution of magmas are proposed and tested, and thus illuminate the interesting and fundamental problems of petrogenesis. The book assumes a modest knowledge of basic petro graphy, mineralogy, classification, and regional igneous geology. It has a role complementary to various established texts, several of which are descriptively good and give wide coverage and evaluation of petrogenetic ideas in various degrees of detail. Existing texts do not on the whole, however, deal with methodology, though this is one of the more important aspects of the subject. At first sight it may appear that the current work is a guidebook for the prospective research worker and thus has little relevance for the non-specialist student of geology. We hope this will prove to be far from the case. The methodological approach has an inherent interest because it can provide the reader with problems he can solve for himself, and as an almost incidental consequence he will acquire a satisfying understanding.