Fundamentals of Number Theory

Fundamentals of Number Theory

DIVBasic treatment, incorporating language of abstract algebra and a history of the discipline. Unique factorization and the GCD, quadratic residues, sums of squares, much more. Numerous problems. Bibliography. 1977 edition. /div

Number Theory

Number Theory

Written by a distinguished mathematician and teacher, this undergraduate text uses a combinatorial approach to accommodate both math majors and liberal arts students. In addition to covering the basics of number theory, it offers an outstanding introduction to partitions, plus chapters on multiplicativity-divisibility, quadratic congruences, additivity, and more.

Introduction to the Theory of Numbers

Introduction to the Theory of Numbers

Starting with the fundamentals of number theory, this text advances to an intermediate level. Author Harold N. Shapiro, Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at New York University's Courant Institute, addresses this treatment toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Selected chapters, sections, and exercises are appropriate for undergraduate courses. The first five chapters focus on the basic material of number theory, employing special problems, some of which are of historical interest. Succeeding chapters explore evolutions from the notion of congruence, examine a variety of applications related to counting problems, and develop the roots of number theory. Two "do-it-yourself" chapters offer readers the chance to carry out small-scale mathematical investigations that involve material covered in previous chapters.

Fundamental Number Theory with Applications, Second Edition

Fundamental Number Theory with Applications, Second Edition

An update of the most accessible introductory number theory text available, Fundamental Number Theory with Applications, Second Edition presents a mathematically rigorous yet easy-to-follow treatment of the fundamentals and applications of the subject. The substantial amount of reorganizing makes this edition clearer and more elementary in its coverage. New to the Second Edition • Removal of all advanced material to be even more accessible in scope • New fundamental material, including partition theory, generating functions, and combinatorial number theory • Expanded coverage of random number generation, Diophantine analysis, and additive number theory • More applications to cryptography, primality testing, and factoring • An appendix on the recently discovered unconditional deterministic polynomial-time algorithm for primality testing Taking a truly elementary approach to number theory, this text supplies the essential material for a first course on the subject. Placed in highlighted boxes to reduce distraction from the main text, nearly 70 biographies focus on major contributors to the field. The presentation of over 1,300 entries in the index maximizes cross-referencing so students can find data with ease.

A Pythagorean Introduction to Number Theory

Right Triangles, Sums of Squares, and Arithmetic

A Pythagorean Introduction to Number Theory

Right triangles are at the heart of this textbook’s vibrant new approach to elementary number theory. Inspired by the familiar Pythagorean theorem, the author invites the reader to ask natural arithmetic questions about right triangles, then proceeds to develop the theory needed to respond. Throughout, students are encouraged to engage with the material by posing questions, working through exercises, using technology, and learning about the broader context in which ideas developed. Progressing from the fundamentals of number theory through to Gauss sums and quadratic reciprocity, the first part of this text presents an innovative first course in elementary number theory. The advanced topics that follow, such as counting lattice points and the four squares theorem, offer a variety of options for extension, or a higher-level course; the breadth and modularity of the later material is ideal for creating a senior capstone course. Numerous exercises are included throughout, many of which are designed for SageMath. By involving students in the active process of inquiry and investigation, this textbook imbues the foundations of number theory with insights into the lively mathematical process that continues to advance the field today. Experience writing proofs is the only formal prerequisite for the book, while a background in basic real analysis will enrich the reader’s appreciation of the final chapters.

Fundamentals of Set and Number Theory

Fundamentals of Set and Number Theory

This comprehensive two-volume work is devoted to the most general beginnings of mathematics. It goes back to Hausdorff’s classic Set Theory (2nd ed., 1927), where set theory and the theory of functions were expounded as the fundamental parts of mathematics in such a way that there was no need for references to other sources. Along the lines of Hausdorff’s initial work (1st ed., 1914), measure and integration theory is also included here as the third fundamental part of contemporary mathematics.The material about sets and numbers is placed in Volume 1 and the material about functions and measures is placed in Volume 2. Contents Fundamentals of the theory of classes, sets, and numbers Characterization of all natural models of Neumann – Bernays – Godel and Zermelo – Fraenkel set theories Local theory of sets as a foundation for category theory and its connection with the Zermelo – Fraenkel set theory Compactness theorem for generalized second-order language

Algorithmic Number Theory: Efficient algorithms

Algorithmic Number Theory: Efficient algorithms

Algorithmic Number Theory provides a thorough introduction to the design and analysisof algorithms for problems from the theory of numbers. Although not an elementary textbook, itincludes over 300 exercises with suggested solutions. Every theorem not proved in the text or leftas an exercise has a reference in the notes section that appears at the end of each chapter. Thebibliography contains over 1,750 citations to the literature. Finally, it successfully blendscomputational theory with practice by covering some of the practical aspects of algorithmimplementations.The subject of algorithmic number theory represents the marriage of number theorywith the theory of computational complexity. It may be briefly defined as finding integer solutionsto equations, or proving their non-existence, making efficient use of resources such as time andspace. Implicit in this definition is the question of how to efficiently represent the objects inquestion on a computer. The problems of algorithmic number theory are important both for theirintrinsic mathematical interest and their application to random number generation, codes forreliable and secure information transmission, computer algebra, and other areas.Publisher's Note:Volume 2 was not written. Volume 1 is, therefore, a stand-alone publication.

The Joy of Sets

Fundamentals of Contemporary Set Theory

The Joy of Sets

This text covers the parts of contemporary set theory relevant to other areas of pure mathematics. After a review of "naïve" set theory, it develops the Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms of the theory before discussing the ordinal and cardinal numbers. It then delves into contemporary set theory, covering such topics as the Borel hierarchy and Lebesgue measure. A final chapter presents an alternative conception of set theory useful in computer science.